Climate Change- North Macedonia

Decorative Photo by Tom Fisk:

North Macedonia has made progress in climate change actions. The country’s 2005 Law on Environment already provided a backbone for a legal framework. However, with the currently drafted Law on Climate Action which is currently drafted and should be submitted to the government before the end of the year, the country will have a special law targeting climate change through low-carbon development and climate change resilience. The country being in the process of accession to Europe, EU legislation and requirements are expected to be transposed in this new legislation. In addition, an implementation of reforms is also required by the EU Economic and Investment Plan for Western Balkans, a programme aiming at the economic recovery of the region in a green and digital way by, among others, bringing the region to the EU single market and making the area more attractive for investment. In terms of policy documents, given that the EU recognises the links between climate change and the energy sector, the country is preparing a National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP), which covers the period from 2021 to 2030 following the 2019 National Energy Strategy. As part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement, the country has set both an initial nationally determined contribution (NDC) in 2015 and an enhanced one in 2020. Therefore, to achieve these different international and European goals, the country plans to implement a number of policies and measures in the energy, agriculture and forestry, and waste sectors.[1]
The Integrated National Energy and Climate Plan of North Macedonia elaborates on all five dimensions of the Energy Union i.e. decarbonisation (addressing two segments: greenhouse gas emissions and renewable energy sources), energy efficiency, security of energy supply, internal energy market, and research, innovation and competitiveness. [2]

The strategic policy under the decarbonisation dimension envisages the realization of all identified climate change mitigation actions that will further reduce GHG emissions, and at the same time will increase the share of renewable energy sources in the gross final energy consumption in a sustainable manner. Around 70% of the total GHG emissions in the country originate from fossil fuel combustion activities in the energy sector, particularly in the energy transformation, industry, and transport sub-sectors. Therefore, promoting the transition of the energy sector towards low-carbon technologies as a key objective includes a strong plan for gradual decommissioning of the coal power plants and accelerating the utilization of renewable sources in the electricity generation mix in conjunction with energy efficiency measures in all sectors. The introduction of a CO2 tax will speed up the phasing-out of conventional fuels, and at the same time stimulate the investments in RES and implementation of energy efficiency measures. In the area of renewable energy, the country will continue its current support mechanisms for RES electricity generation via feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums with auctions (granted in a tendering procedure). The country will promote further utilization of RES in the electricity sector (without incentives), but also in the other sectors through the introduction of the “prosumer” concept and by electrification of the heating and cooling sector using high efficient heat pumps and district heating fuelled by CHP biomass, as well as by increasing the biofuels consumption in the transport sector. [2]

Decorative Photo of City Skyline Under Blue Sky and White Clouds by Natalie Dmay from pexels:
Republic of North Macedonia is exposed to several geophysical and climate-related hazards, some of which are increasing in frequency and magnitude. This section allows you to explore the susceptibility of livelihoods and natural systems to impacts of climate variability and change and facilitate the exploration of socioeconomic and development data and its relationships with natural hazards vulnerable areas. [3]

Turn Down the Heat points out that in FYR Macedonia climate change is an immediate and fundamental threat because agriculture is one of the most-climate sensitive of all sectors and the livelihoods of rural communities are at risk. The report states that there must be a clear plan for aligning agricultural policies with climate change, developing the capabilities of key agricultural institutions, and making needed investments in infrastructure, support services and on-farm improvements. The Green Growth and Climate Change Analytic and Advisory Support Program was launched in 2011, with funding support from the World Bank and the governments of Norway and Sweden. [4]
The Green Growth Country Assessment takes a practical approach to identifying specific challenges and opportunities FYR Macedonia faces in building its green growth future and presents them in a form useful for decision makers. The report addresses mitigation, adaptation, and the most immediately challenging resource sustainability issue, clean air. The report summarizes analytic work undertaken in sectors and on issues selected as critical for defining and understanding the green growth path of the country, with an emphasis on climate action. [4]
Therefore, under UNECE’s supervision, a study has been conducted, assessing the current institutional, legal and political framework for climate change actions. A careful investigation of the planned policies and measures allowed to analyse them in terms of economic and environmental effectiveness as well as their SDGs contributions. The study led to a dozen of recommendations for further steps. These latter focus on the legal, political and institutional frameworks, the monitoring and information aspect and the need for awareness raising, education and youth engagement. Main topics include the implementation of NDC and the promotion of circular and green economy. [1]


[2] file:///C:/Users/ant_pas/Downloads/Draft_NECP_NM_%202020.pdf


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *